This bibliography contains all the secondary sources on digital writing tools that have been mentioned on the individual tool pages, as well as other useful reading material. It includes various types of sources, including blog posts (BL), books (BK) book chapters (BC), conference papers (CP), peer-reviewed journal articles (JL), popular magazine or newspaper articles (M), book reviews published in journals (R), and material featured on websites (W).


Click here to download a .pdf version for printing.


JL Aarts, B., Clayton, D. and Wallis, S. (2012) Bridging the Grammar Gap: Teaching English Grammar to the iPhone Generation. English Today 28(1), 3-8.

JL Adams, C. (2016) Programming the Gesture of Writing: On the Algorithmic Paratexts of the Digital. Educational Theory 66(4), 479-497.

BL Alexander, J. (2015) What’s Everyone Got Against Adverbs? Pairings.

JL Baldwin, S. (2002) Purple Dotted Underlines: Microsoft Word and the End of Writing. Afterimage 30(1), 6-7.

JL Behrens, S.J., et al. (2016) Academic English and Language-Related Technology. NADE Digest 8(1), 28-34.

JL Benzie, H.J., and Harper, R. (2019) Developing Student Writing in Higher Education: Digital Third-Party Products in Distributed Learning Environments. Teaching in Higher Education 1-15.

M Bishop, T. (2005) A Word to the Unwise – Program’s Grammar Check Isn’t So Smart. Seattle PI (March 27).

JL Bray, N. (2013) Writing with Scrivener: A Hopeful Tale of Disappearing Tools, Flatulence, and Word Processing Redemption. Computers and Composition 30, 197-210.

JL Brock, M.N. (1990). Can the Computer Tutor? An Analysis of a Disk-based Text Analyzer. System 18(3), 351-359.

M Brogan, J. (2018) Grammarly Fixed a Security Vulnerability, but It Still Can’t Fix Our Writing. Slate (7th February).

JL Buck, A.M. (2008) The Invisible Interface: MS Word in the Writing CenterComputers and Composition 25(4), 396-415. 

M Carr, N. (2013) All Can Be Lost: The Risk of Putting Our Knowledge in the Hands of Machines. The Atlantic (November).

JL Caveleri, M., and Dianati, S. (2016) You Want Me to Check Your Grammar Again? The Usefulness of an Online Grammar Checker as Perceived by Students. Journal of Academic Language and Learning 10(1), 223-236. 

JL Ching, K.L. (2018) Tools Matter: Mediated Writing Activity in Alternative Digital Environments. Written Communication 35(3), 344-

M Crouch, I. (2014) Hemingway Takes the Hemingway Test. The New Yorker (13th February).

BK Curzan, A. (2014) Fixing English: Prescriptivism and Language History. New York: Cambridge University Press.

JL Dale, R. (2016) Checking in on Grammar Checking. Natural Language Engineering, 22(3), 491-495. 

JL Daniels, P., and Leslie, D. (2013) Grammar Software Ready for EFL Writers? OnCue Journal 9(4), 391-401.

JL Dembsey, J.M. (2017) Closing the Grammarly® Gaps: A Study of Claims and Feedback from an Online Grammar Program. The Writing Center Journal, 63-100.

M Esposito, S. (2014) Do We Really Need Hemingway App? SF Gate (8th April).

BL Evans, D. (2012) Proofreading Test: My Wife vs. Grammarly vs. Ginger vs. After The Deadline vs. Microsoft Word 2010. Good Content Co.

M Fernandez, P. (2017) ‘Through the Looking Glass’: Present and Future Tools for Writing. Library Hi Tech News 34(5), 1-5.

JL Gabriel, R.P. (2012) Defamiliarization: Flarf, Conceptual Writing, and Using Flawed Software Tools as Creative Partners. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal 4(2),134-145.

JL Galletta, D.F., et al. (2005) Does Spell-Checking Software Need a Warning Label? Communications of the ACM 48(7), 82-86.

R Gump, S.E. (2016) The Writer’s Diet: A Guide to Fit Prose by Helen Sword. Journal of Scholarly Publishing 48(1), 68-71.

JL Hodges, T.S. and Hani, M. (2017) Focus on Technology: Digitizing Students’ Writing With Online Tools. Childhood Education 93(1), 93-95.

JL Huh, J. (2013) Why Microsoft Word Does Not Work for Novice Writers. interactions 20(2), 58-61. 

BL Irvine, A. (2019) An English PhD-Holder Reviews Grammarly. Thesislink (4th June).

CP John, P. et al. (2017) Using Grammar Checkers to Provide Written Corrective Feedback. 6th Meeting on Language Teaching (MeLT/ReEL), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal Québec, 25-26 April, 2017.

BC John, P., and Woll, N. (2018) Using Grammar Checkers in the ESL Classroom: The Adequacy of Automatic Corrective Feedback. Future-proof CALL: language learning as exploration and encounters–short papers from EUROCALL 2018, 118.

BL Johnson, T. (2017) Why Simple Language Isn’t So Simple: The Struggle to Create Plain Language in Documentation. I’d rather be writing (27th July).

JL Karyuatry, L., et al. (2018) Grammarly as a Tool to Improve Students’ Writing Quality: Free Online-Proofreader across the Boundaries. Jurnal Sains Sosial dan Humaniora 2(1) (May 1), 83-89.

JL Kemp, F. (1992) Who Programmed This? Examining the Instructional Attitudes of Writing-Support Software.Computers and Composition 10(1), 9-24.

M Kopf, D. (2017) Don’t Like the Way You Write? An Artificial Intelligence App Promises to Polish Your Prose. Quartz (10th March).

JL Kostadinova, V. (2015) Microsoft Grammar and Style Checker (‘Consider Revising’). English Today 31(4), 3-4. 

W Krishnamurthy, S. (n/d) A Demonstration of the Futility of Using Microsoft Word’s Spelling and Grammar Check

JL Kvåle, G. (2016) Software as Ideology: Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of Microsoft Word and SmartArt. Journal of Language and Politics 15(3), 259-273.

M Larocque, P. (2008) Electronic Intelligence? No Such Thing. The Quill 96(5), 66.

JL Longoa, B. et al. (2003) The Poetics of Computers: Composing Relationships with Technology. Computers and Composition 20, 97-118.

JL Major, D. (2010) How Computer Editing Responds to Types of Writing Errors. Issues in Writing 18(2),146.

JL McAlexander, P. (2000) Checking the Grammar Checker: Integrating Grammar Instruction with Writing. Journal of Basic Writing 19(2), 124-140.

JL McGee, T., & Ericsson, P. (2002) The Politics of the Program: MS WORD as the Invisible Grammarian. Computers and Composition 19, 453-70.

BC McClurken, J., et al. (2013) Digital Literacy and the Undergraduate Curriculum. In D.J. Cohen and T. Scheinfeldt (eds.) Hacking the Academy: New Approaches to Scholarship and Teaching from Digital Humanities, 80-86. Digital Humanities. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

M Mitchell, M. (2019) Artificial Intelligence Hits the Barrier of Meaning. The New York Times (Nov 5).

JL Morphy, P. & Graham, S. (2012) Word Processing Programs and Weaker Writers/Readers: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings. Reading and Writing 25(3), 641-678.

BL Nazerian, T. (2017) Has Strunk and White Struck Out of Writing Instruction? Ed Surge (26th October).

W Nordquist, R. (2017) The Advantages and Disadvantages of Spell Checkers. ThoughtCo (August 29).

JL Nova, M. (2018) Utilizing Grammarly in Evaluating Academic Writing: A Narrative Research on EFL Students’ Experience. Premise: Journal of English Education and Applied Linguistics 7(1), 80-96.

JL O’Neill, R., and Russell, A.M.T. (2018) Stop! Grammar Time: University Students’ Perceptions of the Automated Feedback Program Grammarly. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 35(1), 42-56.

BC Pemberton, M.A. (2010) Word Processing and Composition. In B. Hawk & O.O. Oviedo (eds.) Digital Tools in Composition Studies: Critical Dimensions and Implications, 47–72. New Dimensions in Computers and Composition. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.

JL Perelman, L. (2016) Grammar Checkers Do Not Work. WLN: A Journal of Writing Center Scholarship 40(7-8), 11-19.

M Pinsker, J. (2014) Punctuated Equilibrium: Will Autocorrect Save the Apostrophe, and Slow Language’s Evolution? The Atlantic, (August 2014).

JL Potter, R. & Fuller, D. (2008) My New Teaching Partner? Using the Grammar Checker in Writing Instruction. The English Journal 98(1), 36-41.

M Brock, R. (2005) Microsoft Word Grammar Checker Are No Good, Scholar Conclude. The Chronicle of Higher Education (April 15).

BC Romberger, J.E. (2011) Ecofeminist Ethics and Digital Technology: A Case Study of Microsoft Word. In Douglas A. Vakoch (ed.) Ecofeminism and Rhetoric: Critical Perspectives on Sex, Technology, and Discourse, 117-143. New York: Berghahn Books.

JL Saadi, Z. K., & SaadatThiesmeyer, M. (2015) EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy: Effects of Direct and Metalinguistic Electronic Feedback. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 5(10), 2053-2063.

BL Sakib, M. (2018) Edit Your Writing With the Hemingway App. TechMasi (2nd August).

JL Santos, M.C., and Leahy, M.H. (2014) Postpedagogy and Web Writing. Computers and Composition 32, 84–95.

JL Selfe, C.L., and Selfe, R.J. (1994). The Politics of the Interface: Power and Its Exercise in Electronic Contact Zones. College composition and communication 45(4), 480-504.

R Shook, K. (2016) The Writer’s Diet: A Guide to Fit Prose. Times Higher Education 2253 (May 5), 51(1).

M Silvis, R. (2016) A Farewell to Adverbs: Why Computers Will Never Write Novels. The Chronicle of Higher Education (April 15), B18-19.

W Stanny, C.J. (n/d) The WritersDiet Test: Using Online Writing Diagnostics to Develop Self-Editing Skills and Improve Writing. Bellarmine University.

JL Stockmeyer, N. O. (2009) Using Microsoft Word’s Readability Program. Michigan Bar Journal 88, 46-47.

JL Swier, R. (2015). Ginger Software Suite of Writing Services & Apps. Calico Journal 33(2), 282-290.

W Thiesmeyer E., & Thiesmeyer, J. (2014) Comparing Grammar Checkers: Holding Grammar Scammers’ Feats to the Fire. Serenity Software.

W Thiesmeyer, J. (2016). Reply to ‘How does Grammarly (The Grammar Checker) Work?’ Question. Quora (11th Aug).

JL Unwalla, M. (2017) Software for Checking Style and Grammar in Scientific Writing. IEEE Potentials 36(3), 38-40.

JL Vernon, A. (2000) Computerized Grammar Checkers 2000: Capabilities, Limitations, and Pedagogical Possibilities. Computers and Composition 17(3), 329-349.

JL Walker, J.R. et al. (2011) Computers and Composition 20/20: A Conversation Piece, or What Some Very Smart People Have to Say about the Future. Computers and Composition 28(4), 327-346.

BL Weiner, S. B. (2014) Free Help for Wordy Writers! Investment Writing (4th November).

W Weiner, S. B. (2017) Editing Tool: The Writer’s Diet. Investment Writing (4th July).

BK Whithaus, C. (2006). Always Already: Automated Essay Scoring and Grammar-Checkers in College Writing Courses. In Patricia Freitag Ericcson, Richard H. Haswell (eds.), Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences. University Press of Colorado, Utah State University Press.

BL Williams, S. (2017) Deconstructing the Hemingway App. (4th December).

JL Yang, H. (2018) Efficiency of Online Grammar Checker in English Writing Performance and Students’ Perceptions. Korea Journal of English Language and Linguistics 18(3), 328-348.

JL Zuber, S., & Reed, A.M. (1993) The Politics of Grammar Handbooks: Generic he and Singular they. College English 55(5), 515-530.